Aminophylline also known as Metaphylline, Theophylline Ethylene Diamine. It is of Synthetic origin and belongs to Xanthine. It belongs to Phosphodiesterase inhibitor pharmacological group on the basis of mechanism of action and also classified in Bronchodilator pharmacological group. The Molecular Weight of Aminophylline is 420.40.
Plasma protein binding is 40%. Renal Excretion accounts for 10% and plasma half life is 6-12 hr. Indications:
It is a vascular and broncho-dilator and diuretic. It can relax involuntary muscle and dilate blood vessels and has cardiac stimulating and diuretic action. It is chiefly used in bronchial asthma and is also useful in acute cardiac failure or as a diuretic.
Aminophylline is contraindicated in conditions like Alcohol dependence, Hyperthyroidism, Peptic ulcer, Febrile illness.
Aminophylline is known to interact with other drugs like Allopurinol，AscorbicAcid, Cimetidine (HCI), Disulfiram, Fluvoxamine (Maleate), Halothane，Interferon Alpha, Ketamine (HCI), Pralidoxime, Promethazine (HCI), Rifampicin, Sulphinpyrazone, Thiabendazole, Obidoxime (Cl). These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required. Side Effects:
The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Aminophylline, which give rise to further complications include Withdrawal symptoms. Aminophylline produces potentially life-threatening effects which include Convulsions, Hypovolemia, Hypoglycemia. Which are responsible for the discontinuation of Aminophylline therapy. The signs and symptoms that are produced after the acute overdosage of Aminophylline include Convulsions, Hypokalemia. The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by Aminophylline are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include Dizziness, Headache，Diarrhea, Anxiety, Restlessness, Palpitation, Tachycardia，Tremors, Insomnia, Abdominal pain, Urinary retention, Nausea and vomiting.
Warning I Precautions:
Aminophylline should be used with caution in patients with severe heart, kidney, liver diseases, hyperthyroidism, congestive heart failure (CHF) or peptic ulcer. It should be used with caution in neonates and in elderly persons.
Administration & dosage:
For intravenous use. It can be diluted by 30ml of 5% Glucose injection and should be injected slowly. Usual dose:
10-20ml (0.25-0.5gm) once.